Monday, May 25, 2020
Reliability is the degree to which a measurement instrument gives the same results each time that it is used, assuming that the underlying thing being measured does not change. Key Takeaways: Reliability If a measurement instrument provides similar results each time it is used (assuming that whatever is being measured stays the same over time), it is said to have high reliability.Good measurement instruments should have both high reliability and high accuracy.Four methods sociologists can use to assess reliability are the test-retest procedure, the alternate forms procedure, the split-halves procedure, and the internal consistency procedure. An Example Imagine that youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to assess the reliability of a thermometer in your home. If the temperature in a room stays the same, a reliable thermometer will always give the same reading. A thermometer that lacks reliability would change even when the temperature does not. Note, however, that the thermometer does not have to be accurate in order to be reliable. It might always register three degrees too high, for example. Its degree of reliability has to do instead with the predictability of its relationship with whatever is being tested. Methods to Assess Reliability In order to assess reliability, the thing being measured mustÃ be measured more than once. For example, if you wanted to measure the length of a sofa to make sure it would fit through a door, you might measure it twice. If you get an identical measurement twice, you can be confident you measured reliably. There are four procedures for assessing the reliability of a test. (Here, the term test refers to a group of statements on a questionnaire, an observers quantitative or qualitativeÃ evaluation, or a combination of the two.) The Test-Retest Procedure Here, the same test is given two or more times. For example, you might create a questionnaire with a set of ten statements to assess confidence. These ten statements are then given to a subject twice at two different times. If the respondent gives similar answers both times, you can assume the questions assessed the subjects answers reliably. One advantage of this method is that only one test needs to be developed for this procedure. However, there are a few downsides of the test-retest procedure. Events might occur between testing times that affect the respondents answers; answers might change over time simply because people change and grow over time; and the subject might adjust to the test the second time around, think more deeply about the questions, and reevaluate their answers. For instance, in the example above, some respondents might have become more confident between the first and second testing session, which would make it more difficult to interpret the results of the test-retest procedure. The Alternate Forms Procedure In the alternate forms procedure (also called parallel forms reliability), two tests are given. For example, you might create two sets of five statements measuring confidence. Subjects would be asked to take each of the five-statement questionnaires. If the person gives similar answers for both tests, you can assume you measured the concept reliably. One advantage is that cueing will be less of a factor because the two tests are different. However, its important to ensure that both alternate versions of the test are indeed measuring the same thing. The Split-Halves Procedure In this procedure, a single test is given once. A grade is assigned to each half separately and grades are compared from each half. For example, you might have one set of ten statements on a questionnaire to assess confidence. Respondents take the test and the questions are then split into two sub-tests of five items each. If the score on the first half mirrors the score on the second half, you can presume that the test measured the concept reliably. On the plus side, history, maturation, and cueing arent at play. However, scores can vary greatly depending on the way in which the test is divided into halves. The Internal Consistency Procedure Here, the same test is administered once, and the score is based upon average similarity of responses. For example, in a ten-statement questionnaire to measure confidence, each response can be seen as a one-statement sub-test. The similarity in responses to each of the ten statements is used to assess reliability. If the respondent doesnt answer all ten statements in a similar way, then one can assume that the test is not reliable. One way that researchers can assess internal consistency is by using statistical software to calculate CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s alpha. With the internal consistency procedure, history, maturation, and cueing arent a consideration. However, the number of statements in the test can affect the assessment of reliability when assessing it internally.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
There are more important skills a student needs to learn for their future. Julia Barrier-Ferreira is an educator and wrote an article for Clearing House, which focused on the nurturing of students. Not only are thinking skills important for a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s future, but they also need the skill to deal with difficult life issues. Students may be able to achieve academically, but lack what is necessary to cope with difficult life issues. Teachers have to abandon teaching students what is not related to the standardized tests, which then makes them lose sight of what is important for the students. A whole child is not simply composed of their intellect, but their emotional and spiritual well-being as well. According to Barrier-Ferreira, Ã¢â¬Å"A school must be about achieving a balance between developing the intellectual, emotional, and social selves of each individualÃ¢â¬ (39). This can be done by allowing students a reasonable amount of time to socialize with their peers and allo ws students to align with the natural disposition of the human being (Berrier-Ferreira 39). However, a teacher cannot focus on teaching students how to socialize or deal with real-life problems if their teaching method is changed to standardize. It would be difficult to teach students the material to pass the standardized tests and nurture them emotionally and spiritually. Barrier-FerreiraÃ¢â¬â¢s main argument is that standardized testing are preventing teachers to teach what is not on those tests. Also, students areShow MoreRelatedCollaborative Learning1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesuniversity student, it is vital to learn collaborative learning, which can benefits for their current studying and for their futuresÃ¢â¬â¢ career path. It also exists challenges for university instructors and students, which will be demonstrated in the following essay. Benefits of collaborative learning At first, some of scholars believed that collaborative learning could assist students to accomplish tasks in a team and can learn from each other. They can share their knowledge, skills and resourcesRead MoreEssay on Exploring the Importance and Purpose of School1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshim/herself morally and financially after completing the educational process. In school thorough a good education, students learn how to plan to achieve their goals. They also learn how to think critically and creatively, and improve the other skills they need. By exploring different subjects and fields they recognize their interests and abilities which lead them to achieve success. In schools students are encouraged to overcome their weaknesses through their strengths. John Gatto is imprudent when he statedRead MoreWhy Students Should Have A After School Job1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestion why students should have an after school job. They might think that it is too early and students should jus t enjoy their childhood. But in reality, students need to learn about the real world and what comes in it. A lot of students don t realize the importance of hard earned money. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand that everything that they have has been worked for and paid for. The main purpose of school is for students to learn logical knowledge and techniques to prepare them for their future. The bestRead MoreThe Purpose Of Education Is Very Diverse And Ever Changing1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdevelop students into well-educated individuals. This knowledge includes teaching students life skills that will help them throughout their lives to make good decisions that will lead to effective and successful lives. The purpose of education also takes on a bigger perspective as well. As I believe it is also important for student to learn good morals and emotional awareness. These skills and values will help students develop awareness of their selves and their peers. They help students gain empathy Read MoreCooperative Learning Is A Revolutionary Style Of Teaching Essay1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa revolutionary style of teaching that offers students a chance to work together, communicate, build social skills, and acquire self-confidence. It is important to inspire students to be excited about learning and to encourage their involvement in the learning process. There are many studies that offer important information and have determined that cooperative learning not only helps students improve academically, but that it also shows that students take pride in the fact they can cooperate andRead MoreThe Importance Of Using Authentic Letters, Diaries, And Journals Of The Social Studies Classroom Essay1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesExplain the benefits of using authentic letters, diaries, and journals in the social studies classroom. Providing students with the opportunity to read and use authentic diaries, journals and letters from others, provides students with essential information. This type of information is real, from real people, with real stories. Upper elementary and middle school students can learn a great deal about social studies through reading the diaries. Journals, letters, and newspaper articles written duringRead MoreTech Integration Essay841 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgames to learn alphabet I would use Cognitive Flexibility Theory. This theory allows students to discuss alternative perspective, points of view, and ideas. To achieve that, a student should think flexibly. Flexibility is the thinking skill that a student utilizes by using his/her ability to adapt to new situations. Being flexible, a student would use some strategies and shift between them to meet different types of challenges that help in the end to achieve desirable outcomes. Student This activityRead MoreFast Food : An Opportunity For Minors1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisapprove of minors, especially high school students, working at fast-food restaurants, others would disagree with him. They would say that working would benefit minors, no matter the place. Working will give them a sense of responsibility, accomplishment, independence, and a glimpse of the Ã¢â¬Å"adult world.Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, it better prepares the young students for future careers and learn to maintain time management together with money management skills. Students could open a door to new as well as moreRead MoreMotivation Is Not Always Present For The Classroom At Milby High School1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspeaks it. Although this is the case, I never used Spanish with them because they can understand English. For this reason, I only knew the basics and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold a conversation with it. My parents always wanted me to learn more Spanish and perfect it in order to have a better fu ture. I never saw the point of it until I was placed Mrs. GarciaÃ¢â¬â¢s Spanish level 1 class. The first days of class I had zero motivation into learning Spanish but as the weeks passed I began to feel like Mrs. Garcia reallyRead MoreInstructional Methods, And Effective Classroom Management Techniques938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs a future teacher it is my goal to not only help the children learn the core body of knowledge and skills necessary to be an acceptable member of society, but also to help children discover their own interest in a safe learning environment. I believe it is very important to use different instructional methods, different assessment methods, and effective classroom management techniques. To establish the learning style of each child, I want my students to be able to express themselves and be creative
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On September fifth, 1972, the terrorist group, Black September, took nine Israeli athletes hostage during the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Black September was a small group of Palestinian militants, almost unknown to the world before the Munich Games. The group belonged to the PLO, or the Palestinian Liberation Organization. The origin of Black SeptemberÃ¢â¬â¢s anger goes back to the long-lasting conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis, which dates back thousands of years . Black September had one purpose for the attack: they wanted to televise the event to bring more attention to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The Black September terrorist group used the attacks on the Israeli athletes as well as the constant media at the 1972 Munich Olympics, to bring attention to the Palestinians wrongful treatment during the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. There has been an unsettling conflict between the Israelis and the Palestinians for many years. The two territories of Israel and Palestine were originally ruled by Britain, but because of many disputes and fights, the United Nations passed the UN Partition Plan in 1947. This plan suggested that the two territories of Israel and Palestine would be turned into separate countries. The Arabs loathed this idea because they got less land, but the Israelis loved it, for they received much more territory. In this spring of 1948, the United Nations declared the creation of Israel, in result, many countries in the Middle East wereShow MoreRelatedThe Events That Occurred At The 1972 Olympics1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1972 Munich Summer Olympic Games The events that occurred at the 1972 Olympics were the result of a long conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews dating to the end of the nineteenth century. Although the two groups have different religions (Palestinians include Muslims, Christians and Druze), religious differences are not the cause of the strife. The conflict began as a struggle over land. From the end of World War I until 1948, the area that both groups claimed was known internationallyRead MoreOlympic Games And Its Impact On Society1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbillions of people. No one sporting event is greater than the Summer Olympic games, for it brings together athletes from all across the globe to compete and represent their respected nations. Winning an Olympic gold medal can create a widespread feeling of patriotism and unite a nation. Unfortunately, the events of the 1972 Olympic Games were a catastrophic disaster. Consequently, the following will reveal the 1972 Munich Summer Olympic Games trage dy and the ramifications of its build up, the event, andRead MoreThe Federal Republic Of Germany1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoptimism, but was equally marked by national and international debate and dispute. The symbolic potential of the Games did not escape the Munich organizers who took just one month in 1965 to secure promises of funding from the city of Munich, the Bavarian State and the Federal Government. Hosting the Games was deemed to be of immense importance. As Chancellor Willy Brandt said, Ã¢â¬Å"Munich 1972 was to serve as a showcase of modern GermanyÃ¢â¬ , a chance to replace memories of the Third Reich with images ofRead MoreThe World Shook With Terror1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith terror September 5, 1972, when a group of eight Palestinian terrorists killed two Israeli Olympic team members and took nine hostage, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. Prior to the hostage crisis, the games had run smoothly and were into their second week of competition . The games were used to present a new identity of democracy and optimism for Germany. This was the first-time Germany had been allowed to host the games since the 1936 Berlin Olympics, which still loomed in internationalRead More1972 Munich Olympics Essay1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat are providing coverage of events around the world? Do news sources invest time and work into their reports, or do they release reports teeming with bias and unproven facts solely for money and satisfactory ratings? The massacre at the 1972 Munich Olympics shocked the world and its citizens, and newspapers responded by producing a variety of biased reports of coverage from the attack and its aftermath. After evaluating news releases from the left-leaning New York Times, the centrist Trenton EveningRead MoreTerrorism in the Olympics Essay1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin the Olympics Security is a fundamental notion in sports. Nowadays athletes are viewed often through the media, therefore they are recognizable. In the Olympics security measures must be taken to protect the athletes. There are many different nationalities involved therefore security has to be taken in order to ensure that there arent conflicting views that could possibly be damaging towards another team. But quite often it cannot be prevented. On the morning of September 5, 1972, the membersRead More The Olympic Games in Munich of 1972 Essay1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespolitical, religious or racial propaganda is permitted in any Olympic sites, venues or other areasÃ¢â¬ (Advertising, Demonstrations, Propaganda* 98). This rule shows just what the Germans were hoping for, a peaceful, passive, war-free environment in which countries can get together and compete. Although we all know that quite the antithesis was upon the 1972 Olympics in Munich between September the fifth and September the sixth. The Munich Massacre, one of the worst massacres of all time, was drivenRead More Terrorism In The Olympics Essay1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSecurity in the Olympics Security is a fundamental notion in sports. Nowadays athletes are viewed often through the media, therefore they are recognizable. In the Olympics security measures must be taken to protect the athletes. There are many different nationalities involved therefore security has to be taken in order to ensure that there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t conflicting views that could possibly be damaging towards another team. But quite often it cannot be prevented. On the morning of September 5, 1972, the membersRead MoreThe 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich Essay1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe 1972 Summer Olympics were an international multi-sport event. Another name for that Olympic Game was the 1972 Olympics Massacre. It was the 20th Olympic Games. It was held in Munich, Germany from August 26, 1972 to September 11, 1972.The 1972 Olympics were the second Olympics to be held in Germany. The first Olympic Games that were held in Germany occur in 1936 in Berlin, which occurred during the Nazi regime. The Olympic Committee in West Germany was hoping to get rid of the military image ofRead MoreMunich Massacre6185 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesRESEARCH PROPOSAL Name: Nick Karvountzis Date: 10/5/09 Topic: 1972 Munich Olympic Massacre Area of Investigation: Outline the main historical debates, perspectives or interpretations you will be discussing Discuss the role that West-German authorities played during the 1972 Munich Olympic crisis, specifically addressing their preparation prior to Black SeptemberÃ¢â¬â¢s terrorist, as well as their consequent actions and decisions made during the crisis. Primarily, assess whether criticisms of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: How do the Liberal-Democratic tradition and the Althusserian approach to culture theorize the notion of the individual and its relationship to the media? Answer: Introduction Liberal-democratic approach sees mass media, mass communication, and mass culture as an outcome of progressive evolution rather than social and technological fraud; this shows that LD approach is clearly showing structuralism -functionalist and idealist. Structural functionalism is related to the sociology of the Frenchman Emile Durkheim and North American, Talcot Parsons, they both viewed society as harmonious, cohesive and integrated wholes where every part works to maintain consensus, equilibrium, and social order. LD describes the communication process as fulfilling 3 functions; doing proper surveillance of the environment to provide warnings against imminent threats and dangers of the value system of a community, correlating parts of society in response to the environment, cultural transmission of social heritage from one generation to another. Lois Althusser, who belongs to French army published a series of articles in the year 1960 on structuralism and Marxism and criticized the humanism thought as well as Sartrian Marxism. He introduced a revised role of economic determinacy with respect to economic, political, cultural and legislative structures present within capitalists social orders. For him, all of these structures have a direct relation to the larger network of the society. As per him, it is very important that a society in which you live must build a strong social system this is because of meaningful interaction between social agents which is based on expectations what the other will predictably do, even if they are not related to each other(BLUMLER KATZ, 2017). If we see socialism in terms of media, then it is the aggregation of people who participate too much greater degree in the common life, their attitude, opinions, and sentiments have some bearing on the policies persuade by the government (Roberts, 2009). Another perspective is from the view point of an individual where democracy is viewed as the sovereignty of the individual. The individual is believed to have the following traits; autonomous, rational and modern and have equal rights, he is able to participate in various activities of other individuals, they are part of many social groups where they usually give their opinions and shows interest like church, local business communities(BLUMLER KATZ, 2017) . Discussion In order to specify institutional and material form in which ideology operates Althusser introduced two terms: Repressive State Apparatus (RSA) and Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) (Roberts, 2009). RSA comprises of a complex of coercive and regulatory forces under control. Which are situated in the public domain and includes, police, government, army and state legislature? It acts as an authority to control violence, whereas ISA consists of social institutions which come out from civil society. It includes educational, religious, family, legal, political media and cultural ISA(Evans Hall, 2011). The Althusserian and LD approach both correlates the notion of the individual and his relation with media. The individual as seen in this approach is a rational and autonomous being. According to the western society context this notion comes within Greco- Christian doctrine wherein the individual treats himself as an independent moral entity and is self-governed. Having such attributes in dividual is only responsible for his own doings and not related to anybody else except God (BLUMLER KATZ, 2017). Hence the LD approach defines this assumption of individual as autonomous and rational concept. LD describe the communication process as fulfilling 3 functions; doing proper surveillance of the environment to provide warnings against imminent threats and dangers of the value system of a community, correlating parts of society in response to environment, cultural transmission of social heritage from one generation to another(Evans Hall, 2011). The use of media by the individual is also explored by the LD approach by implementation use and gratification approach which says that individual consumes media not only to take information but also to satisfy personal needs such as personal guidance, relaxation, shared topic conversation and a structure to the daily routine this indicates that how media plays with the information before presenting it in front of audiences which simply states that media does not only disseminates information but also shapes content as per their interest (Fowels, 1992). Hence this position of the individual in his or her relationship with the media as consumer defines the notion of individual in the Liberal Democratic approach as rational and autonomous (Fowels, 1992). Before presenting it to audience Moreover, despite the notion of individual autonomy the LD approach states that individual is not an isolated personality he is also a part of various group. It also defines mass society as heterogeneous where it is a combination of different people who belongs to different culture, society, age, gender(Evans Hall, 2011). This is considered as a positive thing as LD theorists Edwards Shills argues that this uneven different ethnic, religion and economic groupings allow the dissolution of social attachments and obligations. This notion of individuals in group which makes mass society with its relationship with mass media is considered as god thing by LD approach in which mass media provokes individual to actively participate in their autonomy where they have to choose between elites of government or media content for information or personal entertainment(Evans Hall, 2011). This argument directly contrasts to the materialists school of thoughts who criticizes mass media for all the powerful information. The LD approach also does not deny the existence of elitist rule in society, however it says that individual in societies are vested with the rights to determine who has to govern them with the use of their votes. In other words, it says that it is not the power over the individual in society, but vice versa(Quail, 1997). Moreover the different demographics in groups keeps a check over one other to keep a balance between them. Talking in terms of mass media the LD approach is working as a tool. This is in relation to the Frankfurt school wherein the media is viewed as all powerful an omnipotent agent of control society of which the government keeps. According to the social scientists Joseph Klapper and Paul Lazars Feld comments that the media does not only play the crucial role in shaping the opinion, views, behaviour and attitudes but also gives the media choice in mass society. In addition the media is also seen to serve mass society, for example with few social movements like peac e protests among others, minority rights and environmental preservation. This argument of media choice by the audience is supported by traditions research methods which collects the data of audience viewership of media(Quail, 1997). According to the Lazars Feld classic study in the mid nineteenth century, it was identified that the audiences goes through certain selective process in their consumption and viewing of media. This means that viewers themselves chose what they want to see and have the tendencies to uphold certain content shown in media through their predispositions and are able to influence people with the help of two way communication(Quail, 1997). Therefore despite of LD approach it has been discovered that individual has the right to choose what they want to see and how they want to consume the information irrespective of any control The Althusser approach on the other hand is different from what we have seen in LD approach. As per him it is very important that a society in which you live must build a strong social system this is because of meaningful interaction between social agents which is based on expectations what the other will predictably do, even if they are not related to each other. His approach says that individual is a subject which is hailed and interrelated into him through the work of ideology(Thwaites, et al., 1968). Ideology as per him comes in two forms first says that there is an imaginary relationship between the individual and their condition of existence. In simple words his theory focuses on the reality which reflects the perception of people. However he also says that these realities are imaginary representation of ideologies which men use to make their sense of their existence, to their religious, political and ethical ideologies. The second form whereas comes as the material existence o f ideology which the Althusser argues that it comes in the form of ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) and transmits ideologies to individuals. ISA consists of social institutions which come out from civil society(Thwaites, et al., 1968). It includes educational, religious, family, legal, political media and cultural ISA. Althusser theory says that individual becomes a subject before his birth. And at this point of life he is transformed into being through familial ideological configuration through which he or she is identified as a boy or girl thus reappointing the role of new born individual he also says that an individual finds his place from his family as he grows he is being introduced into groups, societies by way educational system and law institutions which teaches him how to perform in a society which is normal to them. Simply put ISAs in place to hail the individual in the roles which are predefined for him(O'Shaughnessy Stadler, 2002). However if due to any reason the individual fails to adopt the ideologies set by ISA then RSA (repressive state apparatuses) comes into action. RSA comprises of complex of coercive and regulatory forces under control. Which are situated in the public domain and includes, police, government, army and state legislature? It acts as an authority to control violence. As per the Althusser approach, media is considered as an ISA which is powerful hailing system which works to augment hegemony in society and the dominant ideology. Ruling ideology or dominant ideology as per Arthur refers to the kind that is deployed by the ruling class. He also confirms that in capitalists societies these ideologies are considered as myths, but the ruling class convince the rest of the society to adopt these ideologies to the extent that it becomes normal. Living these ideologies as not a form of consciousness, but their world itself and as a result they strengthen their hegemonic rule in society. In other words, these ideologies offer them roles which suits them in society O Shaughnessy and Stadler says that media upholds the ideological values of the ruling classes by producing such programs under a unifying label. Although all these members of family or public are not wrong, but the media debates that these groups shares similarities in goals, wants, desires and needs. In other words media gives individual a sense of subjectivity and identity by hailing and interpellation. Individuals identities are predefined and their subjectivity is about someone else(Sills, 1972). Furthermore, the ISA defines media as the source which transmits ideology through its differentiation of certain groups as good and certain groups as evil. For example in police shows criminal is portrayed as bad individual who is indulged in criminal activities as a result of his psychological problem (Hirst and Woolley, 1982). Such representations shows criminal as the portrayal of certain group. Similarly hero is portrayed as different group, therefore this representation helps individuals in identifying which group of society is good and which one is bad(Evans Hall, 2011). Conclusion The theorization of the notion of the individual and its relationship with media of both the LD approach and Althusser approach is little complex and differs with each other in many ways. On one hand the LD approach sees individual as rational and autonomous, having a balance between the society and media in the way that he himself selects what he wants to see on the other hand the Althusser approach defines that the individual is a subject who has been indulged with dominant ideologies which have become his or her reality by way of interpolating and hailing activities of ISAs of which the part is media (Hirst and Woolley, 1982). The position of the individual in his or her relationship with the media as consumer defines the notion of the individual in the Liberal Democratic approach as rational and autonomous(Thwaites, et al., 1968). This approached places the individual in a position of subjectivity to other bigger subjects like a member of ruling class and sees media together with ISA. This approach also helps individual to identify which group is good for them and which one is the bad basis which they define their relationship. Thus, both the approaches provide us with the meaningful information about the individual and its relationship with the media enabling us to understand the power at play in the society. References: BLUMLER, J. G. KATZ, E., 2017. The Uses of Mass communication. Sage Annual Reviews of Communications Research, 3(5), pp. 249-264. Evans, J. Hall, S., 2011. VIsual culture: the reader. In: J. Evans, ed. VIsual culture: the reader . London : Sage Publications , pp. 2-323. Fowels, J. (1992).Why viewers Watch. 2nd ed. United States of America: Sage Publications, pp.46-49. Hirst, P. and Woolley, P. (1982).Social Relations and Human Attributes. 3rd ed. London, New York: Tavistock publication limited, pp.118-130. O'Shaughnessy, M. Stadler, J., 2002. Media and Society. In: Media and Society. Australia : s.n., pp. 196-221. Quail, D. M., 1997. Audience Analysis. In: S. Publications, ed. A Functionalist Model: The Usesand Gratifications Approach . London : Sage Publications , pp. 70-76. Sills, D. L., 1972. COMMUNICATION, MASS: Effects. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 3(5), pp. 81-89. Thwaites, T., Davis, L. Mules, W., 1968. Introducing Cultural and. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, 2(3), pp. 159-177. Roberts, C. (2009).Text analysis for the social sciences. New York: Routledge.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Current Issues in Social Work Essay A social worker is someone that is employed to provide social services to people, especially the disadvantaged. There are many different types of social workers. There are social workers in administration policy and research. They do research for stuff like questioning diagnostics of anxiety in guardianship. There are also child, family, and school social workers. They often work with families that have had problems with abuse or lose of a home; they also work with families that have serious mental illnesses. They also respond to crisis in the class room. Children and school social orkers counsel those who are dealing with stress or those that are acting out. There are also health care social workers, they work mostly in hospitals. These kinds of social workers will help aid in emotional and financial standings. Health care doesnt Just affect the body. It hurts people emotionally and financially as well. There are plenty of different kinds of social workers (Types of Social Work, Web). In an interview with Karen Murphy, a social worker in Castle Rock Colorado I had asked, What do you think is going to happen in the field in the next five years? Murphy esponded Even though social workers work in different fields, and have different tasks that they focus on, they are all linked together. A childrens social worker may be helping with abusive families, while a health care social worker is helping solve problems with financial things, but they both face most of the same problems as social workers. Currently there are a few problems that so cial workers as a whole are facing. Some of the problems they are facing are: Overloads on cases, long hours, emotional struggles, and work lives interfering with personal and social lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Current Issues in Social Work specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Current Issues in Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Current Issues in Social Work specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Case overloads are due to the hard economic times. They are also occurring due to budget cuts. The quintessential American dream has dissolved into meaning something entirely different than it once did, challenging social workers as they help an increasing number of clients who are suffering from the negative effects of a strained economy. (Social Workers Face New Challenges, Web). For example there has been an increase in food stamps. Most everyone either has food stamps or knows someone that gets food stamps. Social workers deal with food stamps, therefore their work load increases with the amount of people that are eligible for food stamps. Many eople are having problems keeping and finding housing. Social workers also help with the homeless, so as more and more people cant afford housing, then more social workers are needed. Sometimes social workers cant be added, what happens is, they get case overloads. So far it has been found that over loads on cases is the biggest problem a social worker will face. This is a growing problem; more and more cases are being assigned. Sixteen percent of social workers have more than forty cases on the go. (Community Care, Web). If you are a social worker for adults then you will be having a bit of a hard schedule to maintain right now. Social workers assigned to adult cases have anywhere from seventy to a hundred cases at a time. What is the most amount of cases you have had going at once? . said Murphy. How do you manage to keep up with your cases ? A Community Care survey has discovered that 90% of social workers say high caseloads are distressing their abilities to practice social work effectively. Having so many cases can cause a social worker to race from case to case and not have time to get to each case before true crisis sets in. These finding should serve as a warning to the government and mployers the situation is unsustainable and getting worse. Excessive caseloads for social workers mean unsafe services its another accident waiting to happen, says Helga Pile who is a Unison officer for social workers (Community Care, Web). A case over load tends to cause stress. A social worker already has many responsibilities you add on more cases and the stress becomes greater. The responsibility to get the Job done then becomes greater. You have twice the people that you need to help. Another thing that cases a social worker stress when they have over loads on cases is ack of support from coworkers and supervisors. The stress from this Job can affect ones health problems. Even though one may not realize it, stress affects our health. You may have an illness that you think came from a headache or bad food; however stress may be the cause. Stress can cause high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. There are many other effects stress has on your health. Some of the effects are: headache, muscle tension or pain, chest pain, fatigue, change in sex drive, upset stomach, and sleep problems (Stress: symptoms, Web). Those are just some of the effects stress has on the body. Stress also causes anxiety, lack of motivation, sadness, and depression. Stress can lead to overeating or under eating, which can cause its own batch of sicknesses. Stress may lead to drug and alcohol abuse. This can cause shut down to vital organs. Most often you will find stressed people smoking, a lot. This can cause lung and heart problems. The fact is stress is not good. It causes the body harm, moods change, and your behavior becomes different. Getting case overloads cause stress and that really takes a toll on the person that is taking the case. If one is stressed and have lack of motivation or erious health risks then how can they be expected to do their Job accurately? If this problem continues to happen, or continues to grow then social workers wont be able to do their Jobs effectively. This means that many cases will be misjudged or not completed safely. Work can only be done effectively with the proper time. Social workers already work long hours as it is, adding more cases means more time at the office or in the field. If there are too many cases going at once then there will not be enough time to work effectively. There was a story about a baby that died. It was the amous story about Baby P His name was Peter Connelly. Peter was a seventeen month old baby that had died from over fifty injuries in the course of eight months. He was a child abuse case that was taken over by a social worker, Maria Ward. She could have saved baby Peter. The social worker was overloaded with over 18 cases, Haringey Councils own recommendations that its social workers should only be responsible for a maximum of 12 (Baby Ps Social Worker, Web). Ward was Just one of many social workers that visited the toddler 60 times in eight months. Those were the eight months leading up to his death. Ward failed to intervene, but if she was one of many social workers that visited the baby, then she wasnt the only one to not help Peter. This case was similar to that of the Victoria Climbie murder. Victorias social worker Lisa Arthurworrey was fired and banned from social work after she was found liable for the death of the eight-year-old in 2000. The ruling was later overturned after it was ruled that Miss Arthurworrey was overloaded with 19 cases. Haringey admitted her caseload was too high and told the Climbie inquiry its own guidelines said social workers should only take on a maximum of 12 cases (Baby Ps social orker, Web). The warning signs were obvious but Ward ignored them. Just one day after Peter turned one year old, Ward saw him butting his head into a wall. She noted that it was most likely a sign of a development problem, and not a cry for help. Twenty days later as Ward was checking on Baby P she noticed a red mark on his chin. His mother had said that he had Just fallen over a table. Ward accepted the mothers explanation and noted that it was not significant. Peter was visited once again in June by Ward. Ward saw that Peters face was injured. His mother was ordered to take him for a Child Protection Order check-up. The doctors had found twelve different areas of bruising and his mother was arrested. On July 30th while Ward was checking in on Peter she found that his face was covered in chocolate and nappy cream. Ward had heard that the mother and her boyfriend had done this to cover up bruises. Ward asked his mother to clean him up, but did not stay long enough to make sure that he had injuries. She noted that he appeared well (Baby Ps social worker was overloaded with 18 child protection cases, Web). On August 1st 2007, baby Peter was sent to St. Anns Hospital in north London. He had a broken back and several broken ribs. They went undetected for quite some time. The very next day an ambulance was called for baby Peter. He was found in his crib. He was blue and dressed in nothing but a diaper. After attempts at revival of baby P he was taken to North Middlesex hospital. He was then pronounced dead at 12:20 pm. An autopsy discovered that Peter had swallowed a tooth after being punched. He had other injuries such as a broken back, broken ribs, and mutilated fingertips along with missing fingernails (Death of Baby P, web). Peter Connelly was Just 17 months old when he died in Tottenham, north London, on August 3 2007. Ward was criticized that she wasnt sufficient enough in the suspicion of the mother. She was obviously a devious liar, but Ward didnt look closely enough. It was found that the reasoning for this was Ward was struggling to cope with her work overload. Two of Baby Ps social workers have lost their plea against an employment hearing, which was ruled that they were fairly sacked. Gillie Christou and Maria Ward claimed they were unfairly fired by Haringey Council in north London in response to a public outcry about the little boys horrific death(Baby Ps Social Worker Gillie Christou , Web). They were bviously dismissed due to the failings of the care of a toddler. The two social workers never appeared at the Employment Appeal Tribunal in central London, therefore the Judge Mr. Justice Wilkie declared that their appeal was dismissed. Christou and Ward were both sacked as soon as it was discovered that there was a period of time in mid-2007 that they didnt know the whereabouts of young Peter. Ward also failed to see Peter once every fourteen days. Both social workers were suspended by a General Social Care Council disciplinary committee in 2010. Ward got a two month suspension while Christou got a four month suspension. These women also admitted to failing to ensure the safety of young Peter. They also admitted that they didnt visit him enough, they said they didnt keep accurate records and they lost track of him for some time. Not only did the two social workers receive disciplinary action, but Peters mother Tracey Connelly, her boyfriend Steven Barker, and his brother Jason Owen were Jailed in May 2009 for causing or allowing the boys death (The Huffington Post 13K, Web). Tracey Connelly was sentenced toa minimum of five years for the death of her son. She was first eligible for parole in August of 2012. The board didnt release her. Connelly did confess that she caused and allowed the death of Peter. She admitted this soon after being charged and served several hundred days in prison. The board relooked her case for a second time and came to the conclusion that Connelly will now remain on parole for the rest of her life and if she breaches any of the conditions, she will probably be recalled to custody. There have been reports saying that Connelly will be given a new name and hairstyle so she can live namelessly amongst the public world. She will not have a full new identity (The Independent, Web). Tracey Connellys ex-lover, Steven Barker, was also Jailed for he death of Peter. He was the one that beat him to his death. Barker was sentenced to life in prison. He was sentenced to a minimum often years for the rape of a two year old girl. He was given a minimum of twelve years for the death of Peter. The term will run concurrently (The Independent, Web). Working as a social worker there is a 100% certainty that there will be many case overloads that will have to be dealt with. It will be a lot of work, but thats the Job that is being taken on. Overload can cause stress and overly long hours. These long hours can make the Job much harder. Visiting a case gets complicated. The mind gets stress and does not pay much attention to detail. When this happens a case can be ignored. Something can happen like in the Case of Baby P. When something happens like this then the social worker can get Jail time, fired, or sued. A social worker can get sued for many reasons. They can get sued for incorrect treatment, sexual impropriety, breach of confidence and privacy, failure of diagnosis, incorrect diagnosis, suicide of patient, improper referral, loss of evaluation, violation of civil rights, etc Just one mistake can lead to a law suit. Getting sued is not a good thing. It can take a lot of time and money. This can also make someone lose their Jobs. Any social worker can get sued if they dont keep a close eye on things. Along with case over loads and getting sued a social worker can get emotional effects. There is so much pressure in the field of social work. The pressure affecting the emotional wellbeing. According to a survey by BASW The College of Social Work last year, two-thirds of social workers said the Job caused them emotional or mental instability and Just under half said they had taken time off due to stress( News and Features Ltd,Web). The work caused stress as was discussed earlier this causes emotional problems. Being in situations where someone dies in a case you are working on can also cause some emotional instability. Imagine being the person in charge of someone that has died and living with it. There are many things in the field of social work that can cause an emotional breakdown. Joe Lepper was dealing with a tough abuse case, his problems started soon after. He stumbled upon hard times with this case because he started to get death threats from the childs father. Joe had a painful childhood, and these threats he received made him think of those memories of childhood. Joe soon became infatuated with the childs dilemma. Because of his obsession with this one case all of his other cases became unimportant. His casework began to slip. He started to feel resentment among his fellow childrens social work colleagues. His obsession also made it so that the promotion he had been working towards slipped away from him. This is the promotion he had wanted for so long and he Just let it slip through his fingers. As a result Joe started drinking to help him handle his grief. His drinking soon caused his marriage to fall apart. He got to the point where he was unable to so his Job suitably. He had become discouraged. He became emotionally unstable, and he was signed off on a long-term sick leave. Joe had suffered from a stress related burnout. It tweaked with his emotions ( News and Features Ltd,Web). Another issue a social worker may have is social lives interrupting work lives. An example of this is a clients child and the social workers child could attend the same school. Both the client and the social worker must attend the same meetings held at the school. As a professional the social worker isnt comfortable with being at the meetings when the client is there. The social worker may not be able to vocalize ideas due to fear of losing the client ecause of different viewpoints. There are boundary issues with the relationship, and as a professional the social worker must protect those boundaries. Social workers should not engage in dual or multiple relationships with clients or former clients in which there are risks of exploitation or potential harm to the client. In instances when dual or multiple relationships are unavoidable, social workers should take steps to protect clients and are responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries (Dual Relationships and Boundary Management in Social Work Practice, Web). This means it would not be appropriate for the social worker to partake in the meetings with the client in presence. , The social worker would need to bring forth the boundary to guarantee that they understand why the social worker needs to separate his personal life and professional work. Social workers of all types have many issues. They take on a hard Job. Long hours, case overloads, emotions, and boundary management are all part of the Job. A social worker will need to be patient to get the Job done. They must be willing to work hard to excel in this field. A social worker must have a back bone.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Gradual changes of an innate knowledge base vs. radical shifts Essay Example Gradual changes of an innate knowledge base vs. radical shifts Essay Gradual changes of an innate knowledge base vs. radical shifts Essay Gradual changes of an innate knowledge base vs. radical shifts Human beings are complex to research on and understand in their entirety. Children derive much of their knowledge from the input of others. Conceptual change entails the varying nature of relationships and concepts in the life of an individual. It put into perspective the aspects associated with getting information, associating with others and how ones adjust in each stage in life. From an analytical perspective, it makes more sense to comprehend conceptual change through gradual changes of an innate knowledge base rather than radical shifts. From their study on several spontaneous-response activities among infants, Onishi, Scott, and Baillargeon (2010) explain that when infant are two years old, they are able to subject false views regarding identity, location and false viewpoints. This ability is robust and can be demonstrated with various belief-inducing situations, with human and non-human agents and different spontaneous-response tasks. Additionally, infants can recognize that agents can hold false beliefs on the location of objects because of the misleading contextual or perceptual cues that cause an agent to inaccurately infer its likely location.; : Subsequently, understanding advanced, scientific concepts in various disciplines requires students to not only rely on simple memorization of facts but learn how to restructure their intuitive, naive theories based on their lay culture and everyday experience. They should undergo profound conceptual change, which is not achievable in the absence of systematic instructions, with both constructivist and sociocultural factors. There has been a dispute between empiricism and rationalism, which concerns the extent that people are dependent upon sense experience in their effort to gain knowledge. Rationalists argues that there are momentous ways that people gain concepts and knowledge independently from the sense experience (Onishi, ; Baillargeon, 2005). On the other hand, empiricists argue that sense experience is a definitive source of all the concepts and knowledge that are possessed by people. From their study on whether infants who are fifteen months old can attest to false beliefs, Onishi and Baillargeon (2005) explains that infants have the ability to appeal to their mental conditions such that they are able to explain the behavior of others. Contemporary psychology is undergoing rapid and far-reaching changes. The conceptual change approach in learning and development is a constructivist approach that relies on various fundamental assumptions, as the way knowledge is acquired in domain-specific theory. Coaching is an effective way of transformational change for the individuals and organizations. Engaging a coach offers a pathway for accelerated professional and personal development. Adopting a coaching mindset approach usually has a profound effect on the productivity and working culture of an organization. Rationalists commonly develop their view in the following ways; firstly, they may argue that in some cases, the content peoples knowledge or of our concepts outstrips the information that can be provided by sense experience. Secondly, they hypothesize accounts of how additional information about the world can be retrieved. Conversely, empiricists provide complementary lines of thought. Firstly, they show how experience provides information that is cited by rationalists, as it is in the first place (Croft, ; Cruse, 2004). Croft and Cruse (2004) provide an analysis of language being controlled by cognitive principles and hence putting into perspective the issue of sense and knowledge.;At times, empiricists opt for skepticism as an alternative to rationalism. Secondly, empiricists oppose rationalists reasoning that reason is a source of knowledge or concepts. In conclusion, there is a divide in educational research, with the cognitive theorists focusing on inter-mental, individual, cognitive mechanisms instead of inter-mental, social mechanisms. From a personal perspective, instructions are intended to guide children move from their actual knowledge, up to their potential knowledge that refers to the knowledge that students and teachers co-construct in learning. The distance from the actual knowledge up to the potential knowledge is referred to as the zone of proximal development. The disagreement between empiricists and rationalists about the source of individuals ideas leads to their content and subsequently the content of peoples descriptions and knowledge of the world. Also, from a personal perspective, like philosophical debates, empiricist and the rationalist debate ultimately concerns peoples position and views in the world, hence, in this case, people are rational inquirers. Works cited Baillargeon, R., Scott, R. M., He, Z. (2010). False-belief understanding in infants. Trends in cognitive sciences, 14(3), 110-118 Croft, W. A. Cruse, D. A. (2004). Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Onishi, K. H. Baillargeon, R. (2005). Do 15-month-ild infants understand false beliefs? Science, 308(5719), 255-258 Vosniadou, Stella, Xenia Vamvakoussi, and Irini Skopeliti. The framework theory approach to the problem of conceptual change.International handbook of research on conceptual change(2008): 3-34.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Group Counseling - Essay Example The frequent mistakes that may occur while running a group are, choosing a wrong member as per his physical appearance, wrong time allocation, selecting a wrong member for a particular task, harsh and unforgiving behavior, overlooking some or any of the membersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and discrimination among the members. These mistakes may cause damage to the group and further to the aim of the group.To run a successful group the leader must acquire certain qualities. The leader must be a good listener and interpreter in order to get comments, responses and ideas from the members of the group. Reflection is the process of monitoring membersÃ¢â¬â¢ success and progress during activities and after completion of activities it acts as a tool of checking performance of the members and setting another goal accordingly. Reflection enables the members to know what they have acquired so far.The leader must give instructions to the members in a summarized speech. Not all members have the capabil ity to understand extensive and tricky arguments. While giving a speech or instructions the leader must be well-prepared and must have complete knowledge about the subject. He must not be harsh in words and his tone should be influential and controlling. The proper use of voice is of great importance for the group members. A leader must not ignore any of the members and must keep a watch on each of the members while giving instructions. A group consists of different people related to different cultures and races. A leader must have knowledge about their cultures to aid them in facing things which are against their cultures. He must know and value their cultural and moral values. The leader must provide the members with a final decision after taking membersÃ¢â¬â¢ suggestions in view. It means that although he is responsible to take